See the link below where they rebuild one of these pumps. In it you can see the wipers (they call them slippers).
Rebuilding A Ford C2 Power Steering Pump
Even if the fluid was really old, I don't see how they could be damaged. They are steel I believe. If there is too much clearance between them and the cam that they fit in, the pump will move less fluid. If they were rusted from sitting for a long time, that could cause problems, but there would be other issues going on.
That looks like a stock PS pump pulley. If the crank pulley is also stock, this is going to make things difficult. If you change the pulley sizes to get the pump into flow control at a lower rpm, it is going to create more heat in the fluid and increase the pressure at high rpms. See the graph below.
The problem with turning the stock pump faster is that most of time during an autocross, the pump will be bypassing so much fluid, that it will get really hot. In addition, the output pressure will also creep up because the flow control circuit in the stock pump isn't even large enough for the stock rpms that it can turn.
If you were to install a 7.5cc KRC pump on the engine, you can easily adjust the flow with an outlet restrictor and the fluid will heat up much less because the pump has a larger flow control circuit. This is not an inexpensive pump.
I would autocross the car again and pay special attention to at what rpm and steering rate the steering loses assist, before doing anything else. That will give you some additional information.